# FAQ - 常见问题¶

## 服务器¶

### 1.12 我忘记了 MySQL 的 root 密码，怎么办？¶

phpMyAdmin does authenticate against MySQL server you’re using, so to recover from phpMyAdmin password loss, you need to recover at MySQL level.

• 查看 $cfg['UploadDir']功能。这允许用户通过 scp、FTP 或您喜欢的文件传输方法将文件上传到服务器。然后，PhpMyAdmin 可以从临时目录导入文件。详细说明请参考本手册的 :ref:config • 使用第三方工具（如 BigDump ）来将上传文件分割成小文件。phpMyAdmin 无法直接支持此特性或任何第三方应用，但我们知道有用户成功使用了这个特性。 • 如果您能够使用 MySQL 的命令行，您可以直接在命令行中导入文件。您可以通过在MySQL中发出“source”命令来实现这一点： source filename.sql;  ### 1.17.1 phpMyAdmin 支持哪些数据库版本？¶ 对于 MySQL 来说，支持 5.5 及以上的版本。对于较旧的 MySQL 版本，我们的 下载 页面提供了较旧的 phpMyAdmin 版本下载（可能已经停止支持）。 对于 MariaDB 来说，支持 5.5 及以上的版本。 ### 1.17a 我无法连接到 MySQL 服务器，它总是提示这个错误：&quot;客户端不支持服务器要求的认证方式，请升级 MySQL 客户端&quot;¶ 您尝试使用旧的MySQL客户端库访问MySQL。可以在 phpinfo() 输出中检查MySQL客户端库的版本。通常它应该至少与您的服务器具有相同的小版本——如 1.17.1 phpMyAdmin 支持哪些数据库版本？ 中所述。此问题通常是由使用 MySQL 4.1 或更高版本引起的。MySQL 更改了身份验证散列值，并且您的 PHP 正在尝试使用旧方法。正确的解决方案是使用 mysqli 扩展 与适当的客户端库匹配您的 MySQL 安装。更多信息（和几个解决方法）位于 MySQL 文档 ### 1.18 (withdrawn).¶ ### 1.19 我无法使用“显示关系”功能，似乎脚本不认识我正在使用的字体！¶ 在此功能中我们使用了 TCPDF 库，该库还需要其他的一些文件才能使用自定义字体（font faces）。请参考 TCPDF 手册<https://tcpdf.org>_ 以了解如何构建这些文件。 ### 1.20 我收到丢失 mysqli 和 mysql 扩展的报错。¶ 要连接到 MySQL 服务器，PHP 需要使用 “MySQL extension” (MySQL扩展)中相关的 MySQL 函数。这个扩展应该需要编译到 PHP 中，或者以动态方式加载。如果是以动态方式加载，动态库的文件有可能是 mysqli.sophp_mysqli.dll。phpMyAdmin 试图加载动态库文件，但加载失败了。通常，软件包”PHP-MySQL”或者类似的软件包会解决这个问题。 There was two interfaces PHP provided as MySQL extensions - mysql and mysqli. The mysql interface was removed in PHP 7.0. This problem can be also caused by wrong paths in the php.ini or using wrong php.ini. Make sure that the extension files do exist in the folder which the extension_dir points to and that the corresponding lines in your php.ini are not commented out (you can use phpinfo() to check current setup): [PHP] ; Directory in which the loadable extensions (modules) reside. extension_dir = "C:/Apache2/modules/php/ext"  The php.ini can be loaded from several locations (especially on Windows), so please check you’re updating the correct one. If using Apache, you can tell it to use specific path for this file using PHPIniDir directive: LoadModule php7_module "C:/php7/php7apache2_4.dll" <IfModule php7_module> PHPIniDir "C:/php7" <Location> AddType text/html .php AddHandler application/x-httpd-php .php </Location> </IfModule>  In some rare cases this problem can be also caused by other extensions loaded in PHP which prevent MySQL extensions to be loaded. If anything else fails, you can try commenting out extensions for other databases from php.ini. ### 1.22 我看不到“文本文件位置”字段，因此无法上传。¶ 通常这是因为您没有在 php.ini 中将 file_uploads 选项设置为 “on”。 ### 1.23 我在 Win32 系统上使用 MySQL，每次我创建表的时候列名都会被自动设为全小写，这是怎么回事？¶ 这是因为 Win32 版本的 MySQL 默认将 lower_case_table_names 设置为1（ ON ）。您可以将此设置显式地设为0（也就是 OFF ）来解决这个问题：在您的 Windows 目录下，编辑 my.ini 文件，添加以下几行配置到 [mysqld] 组中： set-variable = lower_case_table_names=0  注解 Forcing this variable to 0 with –lower-case-table-names=0 on a case-insensitive filesystem and access MyISAM tablenames using different lettercases, index corruption may result. 然后，重新启动 MySQL。您也可以使用如下的查询语句来查询此设置值 SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'lower_case_table_names';  ### 1.24（已撤销）。¶ ### 1.25 我在Windows XP上运行带有mod_gzip-1.3.26.1a的Apache，遇到了一些问题，例如在运行SQL查询时未定义变量。¶ Jose Fandos 给出的解决方法：在 httpd.conf 中增加下面两行： # mod_gzip_item_include file \.php$
# mod_gzip_item_include mime "application/x-httpd-php.*"


This is a permission problem. Right-click on the phpmyadmin folder and choose properties. Under the tab Security, click on “Add” and select the user “IUSR_machine” from the list. Now set their permissions and it should work.

### 1.27 当我想查看巨大的页面时，我会得到一个空页面（例如 带有大量表格的 db_structure.php）。¶

RewriteEngine On
RewriteRule ^([a-zA-Z0-9_]+)/([a-zA-Z0-9_]+)/([a-z_]+\.php)$index.php?db=$1&table=$2&target=$3 [R]
RewriteRule ^([a-zA-Z0-9_]+)/([a-z_]+\.php)$index.php?db=$1&target=$2 [R] RewriteRule ^([a-zA-Z0-9_]+)/([a-zA-Z0-9_]+)$ index.php?db=$1&table=$2 [R]
RewriteRule ^([a-zA-Z0-9_]+)$index.php?db=$1 [R]


### 1.35 我将 PHP 配置为在 Apache 上以 CGI 方式运行。在这种情况下我能否使用 HTTP 认证？¶

RewriteEngine On
RewriteRule .* - [E=REMOTE_USER:%{HTTP:Authorization},L]


### 1.38 我能在启用了 Suhosin 的服务器上使用 phpMyAdmin 吗？¶

Yes but the default configuration values of Suhosin are known to cause problems with some operations, for example editing a table with many columns and no primary key or with textual primary key.

Suhosin configuration might lead to malfunction in some cases and it can not be fully avoided as phpMyAdmin is kind of application which needs to transfer big amounts of columns in single HTTP request, what is something what Suhosin tries to prevent. Generally all suhosin.request.*, suhosin.post.* and suhosin.get.* directives can have negative effect on phpMyAdmin usability. You can always find in your error logs which limit did cause dropping of variable, so you can diagnose the problem and adjust matching configuration variable.

The default values for most Suhosin configuration options will work in most scenarios, however you might want to adjust at least following parameters:

To further improve security, we also recommend these modifications:

You can also disable the warning using the $cfg['SuhosinDisableWarning']. ### 1.39 当我尝试使用 https 连接时，我可以成功登录，但是会重定向回 http 连接，是什么导致了这个行为？¶ This is caused by the fact that PHP scripts have no knowledge that the site is using https. Depending on used webserver, you should configure it to let PHP know about URL and scheme used to access it. For example in Apache ensure that you have enabled SSLOptions and StdEnvVars in the configuration. ### 1.41 当我需要查看数据库权限时，会得到“未知字段”的报错。¶ MySQL 服务器的权限表没有更新，请运行 mysql_upgrade 命令来进行更新。 ### 1.42 如何阻止爬虫机器人访问 phpMyAdmin？¶ You can add various rules to .htaccess to filter access based on user agent field. This is quite easy to circumvent, but could prevent at least some robots accessing your installation. RewriteEngine on # Allow only GET and POST verbs RewriteCond %{REQUEST_METHOD} !^(GET|POST)$ [NC,OR]

# Ban Typical Vulnerability Scanners and others
# Kick out Script Kiddies
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^(java|curl|wget).* [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^.*(libwww-perl|curl|wget|python|nikto|wkito|pikto|scan|acunetix).* [NC,OR]

# No reasons to access from bots
# Ultimately Better than the useless robots.txt
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^.*(AdsBot-Google|ia_archiver|Scooter|Ask.Jeeves|Baiduspider|Exabot|FAST.Enterprise.Crawler|FAST-WebCrawler|www\.neomo\.de|Gigabot|Mediapartners-Google|Google.Desktop|Feedfetcher-Google|Googlebot|heise-IT-Markt-Crawler|heritrix|ibm.com\cs/crawler|ICCrawler|ichiro|MJ12bot|MetagerBot|msnbot-NewsBlogs|msnbot|msnbot-media|NG-Search|lucene.apache.org|NutchCVS|OmniExplorer_Bot|online.link.validator|psbot0|Seekbot|Sensis.Web.Crawler|SEO.search.Crawler|Seoma.$SEO.Crawler$|SEOsearch|Snappy|www.urltrends.com|www.tkl.iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp/~crawler|SynooBot|crawleradmin.t-info@telekom.de|TurnitinBot|voyager|W3.SiteSearch.Crawler|W3C-checklink|W3C_Validator|www.WISEnutbot.com|yacybot|Yahoo-MMCrawler|Yahoo\!.DE.Slurp|Yahoo\!.Slurp|YahooSeeker).* [NC]
RewriteRule .* - [F]


### 1.43 为什么不能显示包含上百个字段的表结构？¶

Some users have requested to be able to reduce the size of the phpMyAdmin installation. This is not recommended and could lead to confusion over missing features, but can be done. A list of files and corresponding functionality which degrade gracefully when removed include:

• ./locale/ folder, or unused subfolders (interface translations)
• Any unused themes in ./themes/ except the default theme pmahomme.
• ./libraries/language_stats.inc.php (translation statistics)
• ./doc/ (documentation)
• ./setup/ (setup script)
• ./examples/ (configuration examples)
• ./sql/ (SQL scripts to configure advanced functionalities)
• ./js/src/ (Source files to re-build ./js/dist/)
• ./js/global.d.ts JS type declaration file
• Run rm -rv vendor/tecnickcom/tcpdf && composer dump-autoload –no-interaction –optimize –dev (exporting to PDF)
• Run rm -rv vendor/code-lts/u2f-php-server && composer dump-autoload –no-interaction –optimize –dev (U2F second factor authentication)
• Run rm -rv vendor/pragmarx/* && composer dump-autoload –no-interaction –optimize –dev (2FA second factor authentication)
• Run rm -rv vendor/bacon/bacon-qr-code && composer dump-autoload –no-interaction –optimize –dev (QRcode generation for 2FA second factor authentication)

mysqli_real_connect(): The server requested authentication method unknown to the client [caching_sha2_password]

mysqli_real_connect(): (HY000/2054): The server requested authentication method unknown to the client

This error is because of a version compatibility problem between PHP and MySQL. The MySQL project introduced a new authentication method (our tests show this began with version 8.0.11) however PHP did not include the ability to use that authentication method. PHP reports that this was fixed in PHP version 7.4.

Users experiencing this are encouraged to upgrade their PHP installation, however a workaround exists. Your MySQL user account can be set to use the older authentication with a command such as

ALTER USER 'root'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED WITH mysql_native_password BY 'PASSWORD';


## 设置¶

### 2.3 网页显示 “Warning: MySQL Connection Failed: Can’t connect to local MySQL server through socket ‘/tmp/mysql.sock’ (111) …” 这样的错误，怎么办？¶

The error message can also be: Error #2002 - The server is not responding (or the local MySQL server’s socket is not correctly configured).

Then, you need to tell PHP to use this socket. You can do this for all PHP in the php.ini or for phpMyAdmin only in the config.inc.php. For example: $cfg['Servers'][$i]['socket'] Please also make sure that the permissions of this file allow to be readable by your webserver.

mysql.default_socket = /tmp/mysql.sock


mysql.default_socket = /var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock


• 可能您安装的 PHP 版本有问题，试试升级 Zend Optimizer。请参考 <https://bugs.php.net/bug.php?id=31134> 。
• 如果您使用 Hardened PHP 并在 php.ini 中将 varfilter.max_request_variables 显式地设为了小于等于默认值（200）的值，就可能会导致此问题。如果您的表中有很多字段，请增加此设置的值（感谢 Klaus Dorninger 提供的信息）。
• 如果在 php.iniarg_separator.input 选项被设置为 “;” 就有可能导致此问题。请将其更换为 “&;”。
• 如果您正在使用 Suhosin ，请增大 request limits 的设置值。
• 如果 php.ini 中的选项 session.save_path 设定的目录不存在或者目录权限为只读，可能导致此问题（PHP 安装的 bug 可能会导致这个问题）。

### 2.10 How to generate a string of random bytes¶

One way to generate a string of random bytes suitable for cryptographic use is using the random_bytes PHP function. Since this function returns a binary string, the returned value should be converted to printable format before being able to copy it.

For example, the $cfg['blowfish_secret'] configuration directive requires a 32-bytes long string. The following command can be used to generate a hexadecimal representation of this string. php -r 'echo bin2hex(random_bytes(32)) . PHP_EOL;'  The above example will output something similar to: f16ce59f45714194371b48fe362072dc3b019da7861558cd4ad29e4d6fb13851  And then this hexadecimal value can be used in the configuration file. $cfg['blowfish_secret'] = sodium_hex2bin('f16ce59f45714194371b48fe362072dc3b019da7861558cd4ad29e4d6fb13851');


The sodium_hex2bin is used here to convert the hexadecimal value back to the binary format.

## 已知限制¶

### 3.9 当在 MySQL 服务器上使用 “–sql_mode=ANSI” 时，会收到报错信息。¶

When MySQL is running in ANSI-compatibility mode, there are some major differences in how SQL is structured (see <https://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.7/en/sql-mode.html>). Most important of all, the quote-character (”) is interpreted as an identifier quote character and not as a string quote character, which makes many internal phpMyAdmin operations into invalid SQL statements. There is no workaround to this behaviour. News to this item will be posted in issue #7383.

When starting phpMyAdmin, you can use the db and server parameters. This last one can contain either the numeric host index (from $i of the configuration file) or one of the host names present in the configuration file. For example, to jump directly to a particular database, a URL can be constructed as https://example.com/phpmyadmin/?db=sakila. 在 4.9.0 版更改: Support for using the pma_username and pma_password parameters was removed in phpMyAdmin 4.9.0 (see PMASA-2019-4). ## 浏览器或客户端操作系统¶ ### 5.1 当我尝试创建超过 14 个字段的表格时，我收到“内存用尽”警告，且操作失效。¶ We could reproduce this problem only under Win98/98SE. Testing under WinNT4 or Win2K, we could easily create more than 60 columns. A workaround is to create a smaller number of columns, then come back to your table properties and add the other columns. ### 5.2 使用 Xitami 2.5b4 时，phpMyAdmin 无法处理表单字段。¶ This is not a phpMyAdmin problem but a Xitami known bug: you’ll face it with each script/website that use forms. Upgrade or downgrade your Xitami server. ### 5.3 我通过 Konqueror (phpMyAdmin 2.2.2) 导出表格结构时遇到了问题。¶ With Konqueror 2.1.1: plain dumps, zip and gzip dumps work ok, except that the proposed file name for the dump is always ‘tbl_dump.php’. The bzip2 dumps don’t seem to work. With Konqueror 2.2.1: plain dumps work; zip dumps are placed into the user’s temporary directory, so they must be moved before closing Konqueror, or else they disappear. gzip dumps give an error message. Testing needs to be done for Konqueror 2.2.2. ### 5.5 (withdrawn).¶ ### 5.6 (withdrawn).¶ ### 5.7 我刷新了浏览器，回到了欢迎页面。¶ Some browsers support right-clicking into the frame you want to refresh, just do this in the right frame. ### 5.8 With Mozilla 0.9.7 I have problems sending a query modified in the query box.¶ Looks like a Mozilla bug: 0.9.6 was OK. We will keep an eye on future Mozilla versions. ### 5.9 With Mozilla 0.9.? to 1.0 and Netscape 7.0-PR1 I can’t type a whitespace in the SQL-Query edit area: the page scrolls down.¶ This is a Mozilla bug (see bug #26882 at BugZilla). ### 5.10 (withdrawn).¶ ### 5.11 Extended-ASCII characters like German umlauts are displayed wrong.¶ Please ensure that you have set your browser’s character set to the one of the language file you have selected on phpMyAdmin’s start page. Alternatively, you can try the auto detection mode that is supported by the recent versions of the most browsers. ### 5.12 Mac OS X Safari 浏览器将特殊字符替换为“?”。¶ This issue has been reported by a macOS user, who adds that Chimera, Netscape and Mozilla do not have this problem. ### 5.13 (withdrawn)¶ ### 5.14 (withdrawn)¶ ### 5.15 (withdrawn)¶ ### 5.16 当使用 Internet Explorer 时，我收到”Access is denied” JavaScript 报错，或者我不能使 phpMyAdmin 在 Windows 下工作。¶ Please check the following points: • Maybe you have defined your $cfg['PmaAbsoluteUri'] setting in config.inc.php to an IP address and you are starting phpMyAdmin with a URL containing a domain name, or the reverse situation.
• Security settings in IE and/or Microsoft Security Center are too high, thus blocking scripts execution.
• The Windows Firewall is blocking Apache and MySQL. You must allow HTTP ports (80 or 443) and MySQL port (usually 3306) in the “in” and “out” directions.

### 5.17 无法使用 Firefox 删除数据或数据库。¶

Many users have confirmed that the Tabbrowser Extensions plugin they installed in their Firefox is causing the problem.

### 5.19 我的浏览器中出现 JavaScript 错误。¶

Issues have been reported with some combinations of browser extensions. To troubleshoot, disable all extensions then clear your browser cache to see if the problem goes away.

### 5.20 我收到“违反内容安全策略”的报错信息。¶

If you see errors like:

Refused to apply inline style because it violates the following Content Security Policy directive


This is usually caused by some software, which wrongly rewrites Content Security Policy headers. Usually this is caused by antivirus proxy or browser addons which are causing such errors.

If you see these errors, try disabling the HTTP proxy in antivirus or disable the Content Security Policy rewriting in it. If that doesn’t help, try disabling browser extensions.

Alternatively it can be also server configuration issue (if the webserver is configured to emit Content Security Policy headers, they can override the ones from phpMyAdmin).

Programs known to cause these kind of errors:

• Kaspersky Internet Security

### 5.21 I get errors about potentially unsafe operation when browsing table or executing SQL query.¶

If you see errors like:

A potentially unsafe operation has been detected in your request to this site.


This is usually caused by web application firewall doing requests filtering. It tries to prevent SQL injection, however phpMyAdmin is tool designed to execute SQL queries, thus it makes it unusable.

Please allow phpMyAdmin scripts from the web application firewall settings or disable it completely for phpMyAdmin path.

Programs known to cause these kind of errors:

• Wordfence Web Application Firewall

### 6.1 我不能在表中插入新行/我不能创建表-MySQL会出现SQL错误。¶

• 使用不带大小参数的 VARCHAR
• 使用携带大小参数的 TEXTBLOB

### 6.23 导出：phpMyAdmin 如何导出为 Microsoft Excel 文件？¶

You can use CSV for Microsoft Excel, which works out of the box.

### 6.27 我可以使用哪些格式字符串？¶

@HTTP_HOST@

@SERVER@
MySQL 服务器名
@VERBOSE@
$cfg['Servers'][$i]['verbose'] 中定义的详细的 MySQL 服务器名
@VSERVER@

@DATABASE@

@TABLE@

@COLUMNS@

@PHPMYADMIN@

### 6.30 导入：如何导入 ESRI Shapefiles？¶

An ESRI Shapefile is actually a set of several files, where .shp file contains geometry data and .dbf file contains data related to those geometry data. To read data from .dbf file you need to have PHP compiled with the dBase extension (–enable-dbase). Otherwise only geometry data will be imported.

Configure upload directory with $cfg['UploadDir'], upload both .shp and .dbf files with the same filename and chose the .shp file from the import page. Create a zip archive with .shp and .dbf files and import it. For this to work, you need to set $cfg['TempDir'] to a place where the web server user can write (for example './tmp').

cd phpMyAdmin
mkdir tmp
chmod o+rwx tmp


### 6.31 如何在设计器中创建关系？¶

To select relation, click: The display column is shown in pink. To set/unset a column as the display column, click the “Choose column to display” icon, then click on the appropriate column name.

### 6.32 如何使用 zoom 查找功能？¶

The Zoom search feature is an alternative to table search feature. It allows you to explore a table by representing its data in a scatter plot. You can locate this feature by selecting a table and clicking the Search tab. One of the sub-tabs in the Table Search page is Zoom Search.

Consider the table REL_persons in 6.6 怎样在依例查询 (Query-by-example) 中使用关系表？ for an example. To use zoom search, two columns need to be selected, for example, id and town_code. The id values will be represented on one axis and town_code values on the other axis. Each row will be represented as a point in a scatter plot based on its id and town_code. You can include two additional search criteria apart from the two fields to display.

You can choose which field should be displayed as label for each point. If a display column has been set for the table (see 6.7 怎样使用 “显示字段” 功能？), it is taken as the label unless you specify otherwise. You can also select the maximum number of rows you want to be displayed in the plot by specifing it in the ‘Max rows to plot’ field. Once you have decided over your criteria, click ‘Go’ to display the plot.

After the plot is generated, you can use the mouse wheel to zoom in and out of the plot. In addition, panning feature is enabled to navigate through the plot. You can zoom-in to a certain level of detail and use panning to locate your area of interest. Clicking on a point opens a dialogue box, displaying field values of the data row represented by the point. You can edit the values if required and click on submit to issue an update query. Basic instructions on how to use can be viewed by clicking the ‘How to use?’ link located just above the plot.

### 6.33 浏览表格时，如何复制字段名？¶

Selecting the name of the column within the browse table header cell for copying is difficult, as the columns support reordering by dragging the header cells as well as sorting by clicking on the linked column name. To copy a column name, double-click on the empty area next to the column name, when the tooltip tells you to do so. This will show you an input box with the column name. You may right-click the column name within this input box to copy it to your clipboard.

### 6.34 如何使用表格收藏功能？¶

Favorite Tables feature is very much similar to Recent Tables feature. It allows you to add a shortcut for the frequently used tables of any database in the navigation panel . You can easily navigate to any table in the list by simply choosing it from the list. These tables are stored in your browser’s local storage if you have not configured your phpMyAdmin Configuration Storage. Otherwise these entries are stored in phpMyAdmin Configuration Storage.

IMPORTANT: In absence of phpMyAdmin Configuration Storage, your Favorite tables may be different in different browsers based on your different selections in them.

To add a table to Favorite list simply click on the Gray star in front of a table name in the list of tables of a Database and wait until it turns to Yellow. To remove a table from list, simply click on the Yellow star and wait until it turns Gray again.

Using \$cfg['NumFavoriteTables'] in your config.inc.php file, you can define the maximum number of favorite tables shown in the navigation panel. Its default value is 10.

### 6.35 如何使用范围查找功能？¶

With the help of range search feature, one can specify a range of values for particular column(s) while performing search operation on a table from the Search tab.

To use this feature simply click on the BETWEEN or NOT BETWEEN operators from the operator select list in front of the column name. On choosing one of the above options, a dialog box will show up asking for the Minimum and Maximum value for that column. Only the specified range of values will be included in case of BETWEEN and excluded in case of NOT BETWEEN from the final results.

Note: The Range search feature will work only Numeric and Date data type columns.

### 6.36 什么是 Central 字段，我如何使用这个功能？¶

As the name suggests, the Central columns feature enables to maintain a central list of columns per database to avoid similar name for the same data element and bring consistency of data type for the same data element. You can use the central list of columns to add an element to any table structure in that database which will save from writing similar column name and column definition.

To add a column to central list, go to table structure page, check the columns you want to include and then simply click on “Add to central columns”. If you want to add all unique columns from more than one table from a database then go to database structure page, check the tables you want to include and then select “Add columns to central list”.

To remove a column from central list, go to Table structure page, check the columns you want to remove and then simply click on “Remove from central columns”. If you want to remove all columns from more than one tables from a database then go to database structure page, check the tables you want to include and then select “Remove columns from central list”.

To view and manage the central list, select the database you want to manage central columns for then from the top menu click on “Central columns”. You will be taken to a page where you will have options to edit, delete or add new columns to central list.

### 6.37 如何使用表结构优化功能？¶

Improve table structure feature helps to bring the table structure upto Third Normal Form. A wizard is presented to user which asks questions about the elements during the various steps for normalization and a new structure is proposed accordingly to bring the table into the First/Second/Third Normal form. On startup of the wizard, user gets to select upto what normal form they want to normalize the table structure.

Here is an example table which you can use to test all of the three First, Second and Third Normal Form.

CREATE TABLE VetOffice (
petName varchar(64) NOT NULL,
petBreed varchar(64) NOT NULL,
petType varchar(64) NOT NULL,
petDOB date NOT NULL,
ownerLastName varchar(64) NOT NULL,
ownerFirstName varchar(64) NOT NULL,
ownerPhone1 int(12) NOT NULL,
ownerPhone2 int(12) NOT NULL,
ownerEmail varchar(64) NOT NULL,
);


The above table is not in First normal Form as no primary key exists. Primary key is supposed to be (petName,ownerLastName,ownerFirstName) . If the primary key is chosen as suggested the resultant table won’t be in Second as well as Third Normal form as the following dependencies exists.

(OwnerLastName, OwnerFirstName) -> OwnerEmail
(OwnerLastName, OwnerFirstName) -> OwnerPhone
PetBreed -> PetType


Which says, OwnerEmail depends on OwnerLastName and OwnerFirstName. OwnerPhone depends on OwnerLastName and OwnerFirstName. PetType depends on PetBreed.

### 6.38 我如何重新分配自动增长的值？¶

Some users prefer their AUTO_INCREMENT values to be consecutive; this is not always the case after row deletion.

Here are the steps to accomplish this. These are manual steps because they involve a manual verification at one point.

• Ensure that you have exclusive access to the table to rearrange
• On your primary key column (i.e. id), remove the AUTO_INCREMENT setting
• Delete your primary key in Structure > indexes
• Create a new column future_id as primary key, AUTO_INCREMENT
• Browse your table and verify that the new increments correspond to what you’re expecting
• 删除掉旧的字段
• Rename the future_id column to id
• Move the new id column via Structure > Move columns

### 6.39 What is the “Adjust privileges” option when renaming, copying, or moving a database, table, column, or procedure?¶

When renaming/copying/moving a database/table/column/procedure, MySQL does not adjust the original privileges relating to these objects on its own. By selecting this option, phpMyAdmin will adjust the privilege table so that users have the same privileges on the new items.

For example: A user ‘bob’@’localhost’ has a ‘SELECT’ privilege on a column named ‘id’. Now, if this column is renamed to ‘id_new’, MySQL, on its own, would not adjust the column privileges to the new column name. phpMyAdmin can make this adjustment for you automatically.

• While adjusting privileges for a database, the privileges of all database-related elements (tables, columns and procedures) are also adjusted to the database’s new name.
• Similarly, while adjusting privileges for a table, the privileges of all the columns inside the new table are also adjusted.
• While adjusting privileges, the user performing the operation must have the following privileges:
• SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE privileges on following tables: mysql.db, mysql.columns_priv, mysql.tables_priv, mysql.procs_priv
• FLUSH privilege (GLOBAL)

Thus, if you want to replicate the database/table/column/procedure as it is while renaming/copying/moving these objects, make sure you have checked this option.

### 6.40 I see “Bind parameters” checkbox in the “SQL” page. How do I write parameterized SQL queries?¶

From version 4.5, phpMyAdmin allows users to execute parameterized queries in the “SQL” page. Parameters should be prefixed with a colon(:) and when the “Bind parameters” checkbox is checked these parameters will be identified and input fields for these parameters will be presented. Values entered in these field will be substituted in the query before being executed.

### 6.41 从旧版 MySQL（5.7.6 版本之前）向新版 MySQL（5.7.7版本及更新）导入转储时，总会遇到导入错误，但是明明在向旧版本导入时没有任何问题啊？¶

If you get errors like #1031 - Table storage engine for ‘table_name’ doesn’t have this option while importing the dumps exported from pre-5.7.7 MySQL servers into new MySQL server versions 5.7.7+, it might be because ROW_FORMAT=FIXED is not supported with InnoDB tables. Moreover, the value of innodb_strict_mode would define if this would be reported as a warning or as an error.

Since MySQL version 5.7.9, the default value for innodb_strict_mode is ON and thus would generate an error when such a CREATE TABLE or ALTER TABLE statement is encountered.

There are two ways of preventing such errors while importing:

• Change the value of innodb_strict_mode to OFF before starting the import and turn it ON after the import is successfully completed.
• This can be achieved in two ways:
• Go to ‘Variables’ page and edit the value of innodb_strict_mode
• Run the query : SET GLOBAL innodb_strict_mode = ‘[value]’

After the import is done, it is suggested that the value of innodb_strict_mode should be reset to the original value.

## 安全¶

userID

userStatus

LogFormat "%h %l %u %t \"%r\" %>s %b \"%{Referer}i\" \"%{User-Agent}i\" %{userID}n %{userStatus}n"   pma_combined