FAQ - 常见问题

请到我们的 官方网站 的链接部分查看更多有关 phpMyAdmin 的特性和接口方面的信息。

服务器

1.1 我的服务器不是在处理特定请求时崩溃就是 phpMyAdmin 发送空白页面或者都是乱码的页面,我该怎么办?

config.inc.php 文件中将 $cfg['OBGzip'] 显式地设为 false ,同时将 PHP 配置文件中的 zlib.output_compression 显式地设置为 Off

1.2 使用 phpMyAdmin 时,我的 Apache 服务器崩溃了。

你应该首先尝试安装最新版本的 Apache(也许也需要 MySQL)。如果你的服务器依旧崩溃,请向 Apache 技术支持小组寻求帮助。

1.3 (withdrawn).

1.4 在IIS上使用phpMyAdmin时,我会显示错误消息:“指定的CGI应用程序因未返回完整的HTTP头……”。

您是不是忘记阅读 PHP 发行版中的*install.txt* 了?请参考 PHP 官方错误数据库中的 12061 号错误反馈 <http://bugs.php.net/bug.php?id=12061> _ 。

1.5 在IIS上使用phpMyAdmin时,我面临HTTP崩溃和/或许多错误消息。

这是一个已知的 PHP ISAPI 过滤器错误:PHP 的 ISAPI 过滤器不是很稳定,建议使用 cookie 认证方式。

1.6 我无法在 PWS 上使用 phpMyAdmin,网页显示一片空白!

这看上去像是 PWS 的 Bug。Filippo Simoncini 找到了一个解决方法,这是目前最好的解决方法:从 libraries/classes/Header.phpindex.php 这几个文件中删除 DOCTYPE 定义。

1.7 我如何gzip转储或CSV导出?它似乎不起作用。

该功能基于 PHP 的 gzencode() 函数。为了兼容性需求(无论是Unix、Windows,还是安全模式与否),你的安装必需具有 Zlib 支持( --with-zlib )。

1.8 我无法在表中插入文本文件,我收到一个关于安全模式生效的错误。

Your uploaded file is saved by PHP in the “upload dir”, as defined in php.ini by the variable upload_tmp_dir (usually the system default is /tmp). We recommend the following setup for Apache servers running in safe mode, to enable uploads of files while being reasonably secure:

  • 创建一个用于临时保存上传文件的目录:mkdir /tmp/php
  • 将目录的所有权更改为 Apache 用户组:chown apache.apache /tmp/php
  • 设置权限:chmod 600 /tmp/php
  • 修改 php.ini 文件,将 upload_tmp_dir 设置为 /tmp/php
  • 重新启动 Apache

1.9 (withdrawn).

1.10 在安全服务器上运行 phpMyAdmin 时上传文件时遇到问题。我的浏览器是 Internet Explorer,正在使用 Apache 服务器。

Rob M 在 PHP 帮助论坛给出了解决方法:将下面一行加入到您的 httpd.conf 文件中:

SetEnvIf User-Agent ".*MSIE.*" nokeepalive ssl-unclean-shutdown

该方法似乎可以解决许多使用 Internet Explorer 或 SSL 时遇到的问题。

1.11 从“导入”选项卡上载文件时,我收到“打开_basedir 限制”。

从 2.2.4 版本开始,phpMyAdmin 支持服务器的 open_basedir 限制。但是,你需要进行设置才能使用此功能。请创建一个临时目录,并将 $cfg['TempDir'] 设置为临时目录的路径。您上传的文件将会被临时存放在此目录下,SQL 语句执行完毕以后,临时文件就会被删除。

1.12 我忘记了 MySQL 的 root 密码,怎么办?

phpMyAdmin does authenticate against MySQL server you’re using, so to recover from phpMyAdmin password loss, you need to recover at MySQL level.

请参考 MySQL 手册:如何重设权限

If you are using MySQL server installed by your hosting provider, please contact their support to recover the password for you.

1.13 (withdrawn).

1.14 (withdrawn).

1.15 我对 mysql.user 字段有疑问。

在较老的 MySQL 版本中, UserPassword 字段分别被命名为 userpassword 。请修改您的字段名中的大小写使其符合标准。

1.16 我无法上传大转储文件(内存、HTTP或超时问题)。

phpMyAdmin 在 2.7.0 重写了导入引擎,并修复了以上问题。如果可能,请升级 phpMyAdmin 到最新版本,并体验新版 phpMyAdmin 给您带来的新特性。

请检查 php.ini 文件中的 max_execution_timeupload_max_filesizememory_limit 以及 post_max_size 的设置值。这四个选项都会影响您可以上传的文件大小和 PHP 能够处理的文件大小。如果您没有服务器管理权,请联系服务器管理员(或服务器提供商)检查这几项设置。另外,要注意 post_max_size 的设置值必须比 upload_max_filesize 的设置值大。如果你的上传量太大或者你的主机提供商不愿意更改设置,有几种解决方法:

  • 查看 $cfg['UploadDir']`功能。这允许用户通过 scp、FTP 或您喜欢的文件传输方法将文件上传到服务器。然后,PhpMyAdmin 可以从临时目录导入文件。详细说明请参考本手册的 :ref:`config

  • 使用第三方工具(如 BigDump )来将上传文件分割成小文件。phpMyAdmin 无法直接支持此特性或任何第三方应用,但我们知道有用户成功使用了这个特性。

  • 如果您能够使用 MySQL 的命令行,您可以直接在命令行中导入文件。您可以通过在MySQL中发出“source”命令来实现这一点:

    source filename.sql;
    

1.17.1 phpMyAdmin 支持哪些数据库版本?

对于 MySQL 来说,支持 5.5 及以上的版本。对于较旧的 MySQL 版本,我们的 下载 页面提供了较旧的 phpMyAdmin 版本下载(可能已经停止支持)。

对于 MariaDB 来说,支持 5.5 及以上的版本。

1.17a 我无法连接到 MySQL 服务器,它总是提示这个错误:&quot;客户端不支持服务器要求的认证方式,请升级 MySQL 客户端&quot;

您尝试使用旧的MySQL客户端库访问MySQL。可以在 phpinfo() 输出中检查MySQL客户端库的版本。通常它应该至少与您的服务器具有相同的小版本——如 1.17.1 phpMyAdmin 支持哪些数据库版本? 中所述。此问题通常是由使用 MySQL 4.1 或更高版本引起的。MySQL 更改了身份验证散列值,并且您的 PHP 正在尝试使用旧方法。正确的解决方案是使用 mysqli 扩展 与适当的客户端库匹配您的 MySQL 安装。更多信息(和几个解决方法)位于 MySQL 文档

1.18 (withdrawn).

1.19 我无法使用“显示关系”功能,似乎脚本不认识我正在使用的字体!

在此功能中我们使用了 TCPDF 库,该库还需要其他的一些文件才能使用自定义字体(font faces)。请参考 `TCPDF 手册<https://tcpdf.org>`_ 以了解如何构建这些文件。

1.20 我收到丢失 mysqli 和 mysql 扩展的报错。

要连接到 MySQL 服务器,PHP 需要使用 “MySQL extension” (MySQL扩展)中相关的 MySQL 函数。这个扩展应该需要编译到 PHP 中,或者以动态方式加载。如果是以动态方式加载,动态库的文件有可能是 mysqli.sophp_mysqli.dll。phpMyAdmin 试图加载动态库文件,但加载失败了。通常,软件包”PHP-MySQL”或者类似的软件包会解决这个问题。

There was two interfaces PHP provided as MySQL extensions - mysql and mysqli. The mysql interface was removed in PHP 7.0.

This problem can be also caused by wrong paths in the php.ini or using wrong php.ini.

Make sure that the extension files do exist in the folder which the extension_dir points to and that the corresponding lines in your php.ini are not commented out (you can use phpinfo() to check current setup):

[PHP]

; Directory in which the loadable extensions (modules) reside.
extension_dir = "C:/Apache2/modules/php/ext"

The php.ini can be loaded from several locations (especially on Windows), so please check you’re updating the correct one. If using Apache, you can tell it to use specific path for this file using PHPIniDir directive:

LoadModule php7_module "C:/php7/php7apache2_4.dll"
<IfModule php7_module>
    PHPIniDir "C:/php7"
    <Location>
       AddType text/html .php
       AddHandler application/x-httpd-php .php
    </Location>
</IfModule>

In some rare cases this problem can be also caused by other extensions loaded in PHP which prevent MySQL extensions to be loaded. If anything else fails, you can try commenting out extensions for other databases from php.ini.

1.22 我看不到“文本文件位置”字段,因此无法上传。

通常这是因为您没有在 php.ini 中将 file_uploads 选项设置为 “on”。

1.23 我在 Win32 系统上使用 MySQL,每次我创建表的时候列名都会被自动设为全小写,这是怎么回事?

这是因为 Win32 版本的 MySQL 默认将 lower_case_table_names 设置为1( ON )。您可以将此设置显式地设为0(也就是 OFF )来解决这个问题:在您的 Windows 目录下,编辑 my.ini 文件,添加以下几行配置到 [mysqld] 组中:

set-variable = lower_case_table_names=0

注解

Forcing this variable to 0 with –lower-case-table-names=0 on a case-insensitive filesystem and access MyISAM tablenames using different lettercases, index corruption may result.

然后,重新启动 MySQL。您也可以使用如下的查询语句来查询此设置值

SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'lower_case_table_names';

1.24(已撤销)。

1.25 我在Windows XP上运行带有mod_gzip-1.3.26.1a的Apache,遇到了一些问题,例如在运行SQL查询时未定义变量。

Jose Fandos 给出的解决方法:在 httpd.conf 中增加下面两行:

# mod_gzip_item_include file \.php$
# mod_gzip_item_include mime "application/x-httpd-php.*"

该 Windows 版本的 Apache mod_gzip 模块在处理 PHP 脚本时有些小问题。修改 httpd.conf 后,当然需要重新启动 Apache。

1.26 我刚刚在IIS的文档根目录中安装了phpMyAdmin,但在尝试运行phpMyAdmin时出现错误“未指定输入文件”。

This is a permission problem. Right-click on the phpmyadmin folder and choose properties. Under the tab Security, click on “Add” and select the user “IUSR_machine” from the list. Now set their permissions and it should work.

1.27 当我想查看巨大的页面时,我会得到一个空页面(例如 带有大量表格的 db_structure.php)。

这是一个 PHP 错误 ,该错误会在打开 GZIP 输出缓存的时候发生。如果您在 config.inc.php`中修改 :config:option:`$cfg['OBGzip'] 选项来关闭这个功能,就能解决此问题。这个错误将会在 PHP 5.0.0 版本中修复。

1.28 我的 MySQL 服务器偶尔会拒绝查询,且返回 ‘Errorcode: 13’ 这样的错误信息,这意味着什么?

这个错误可能是因为 lower_case_table_names 被设为了1,而数据库中存在大写的数据库名或表名,这是 MySQL 的一个错误。要解决此问题,请先显式地将 lower_case_table_names 设为 false,然后将所有表名改为小写,最后再重新将 lower_case_table_names 设为 true。或者,MySQL 3.23.56 / 4.0.11-gamma 版本已经修复了这个问题。

1.29 当我创建一个表或修改一列时,我会得到一个错误,并且这些列是重复的。

这可能是因为没有正确配置 Apache 而导致 PHP 无法正确解释 .php 文件。

该问题的产生,可能是因为在 Apache 的配置文件中显式地指定了两组互相冲突的设置:

SetOutputFilter PHP
SetInputFilter PHP

AddType application/x-httpd-php .php

在我们看到的例子中,一组指令位于 /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf,而另一组在`/etc/httpd/conf/addon-modules/php.conf`。建议使用“AddType”,所以只需注释掉第一组行,然后重新启动Apache:

#SetOutputFilter PHP
#SetInputFilter PHP

1.30 我遇见了报错 “navigation.php: Missing hash”。

产正这个问题的原因是您的服务器上运行着 Turck MMCache,升级 MMCache 到 2.3.21 版本就可解决此问题。

1.31 phpMyAdmin 支持哪些 PHP 版本?

Since release 4.5, phpMyAdmin supports only PHP 5.5 and newer. Since release 4.1 phpMyAdmin supports only PHP 5.3 and newer. For PHP 5.2 you can use 4.0.x releases.

PHP 7 is supported since phpMyAdmin 4.6, PHP 7.1 is supported since 4.6.5, PHP 7.2 is supported since 4.7.4.

HHVM is supported up to phpMyAdmin 4.8.

Since release 5.0, phpMyAdmin supports only PHP 7.1 and newer. Since release 5.2, phpMyAdmin supports only PHP 7.2 and newer.

1.32 我可以配合 IIS 使用 HTTP 认证吗?

答案是肯定的。我们在 IIS 5.1 上以 ISAPI 方式使用 PHP 4.3.9 来测试 phpMyAdmin 2.6.1,结果可以正常使用 phpMyAdmin。

  1. 请在 php.ini 文件中作如下设置: cgi.rfc2616_headers = 0
  2. In Web Site Properties -> File/Directory Security -> Anonymous Access dialog box, check the Anonymous access checkbox and uncheck any other checkboxes (i.e. uncheck Basic authentication, Integrated Windows authentication, and Digest if it’s enabled.) Click OK.
  3. 自定义错误 选项卡中,选中 401;1401;5 条目,然后点击 设为默认 按钮。

参见

RFC 2616

1.33 (withdrawn).

1.34 我能直接访问数据库或表格页面吗?

Yes. Out of the box, you can use a URL like http://server/phpMyAdmin/index.php?server=X&db=database&table=table&target=script. For server you can use the server number which refers to the numeric host index (from $i) in config.inc.php. The table and script parts are optional.

如果您需要像 http://server/phpMyAdmin/database[/table][/script] 这样的 URL 地址,您需要做一些额外的配置。下面给出在 Apache <https://httpd.apache.org> 服务器上进行设置的方法。首先请确定您已经在全局范围内启用了 Options FollowSymLinksAllowOverride FileInfo 功能,然后,在 phpMyAdmin 的目录配置下启用这两个功能和 mod_rewrite。接着,在 phpMyAdmin 安装的根目录下创建 .htaccess 文件,并将如下内容写入文件中(别忘了修改其中的目录名):

RewriteEngine On
RewriteBase /path_to_phpMyAdmin
RewriteRule ^([a-zA-Z0-9_]+)/([a-zA-Z0-9_]+)/([a-z_]+\.php)$ index.php?db=$1&table=$2&target=$3 [R]
RewriteRule ^([a-zA-Z0-9_]+)/([a-z_]+\.php)$ index.php?db=$1&target=$2 [R]
RewriteRule ^([a-zA-Z0-9_]+)/([a-zA-Z0-9_]+)$ index.php?db=$1&table=$2 [R]
RewriteRule ^([a-zA-Z0-9_]+)$ index.php?db=$1 [R]

在 5.1.0 版更改: Support for using the target parameter was removed in phpMyAdmin 5.1.0. Use the route parameter instead.

1.35 我将 PHP 配置为在 Apache 上以 CGI 方式运行。在这种情况下我能否使用 HTTP 认证?

可以,但您需要设置以下重写规则,以便将认证参数传送给 CGI

RewriteEngine On
RewriteRule .* - [E=REMOTE_USER:%{HTTP:Authorization},L]

1.36 我收到一个错误“500内部服务器错误”。

导致这种情况的原因有很多种,请查看您的服务器错误日志,其中可能包含了有关的错误信息。

1.38 我能在启用了 Suhosin 的服务器上使用 phpMyAdmin 吗?

Yes but the default configuration values of Suhosin are known to cause problems with some operations, for example editing a table with many columns and no primary key or with textual primary key.

Suhosin configuration might lead to malfunction in some cases and it can not be fully avoided as phpMyAdmin is kind of application which needs to transfer big amounts of columns in single HTTP request, what is something what Suhosin tries to prevent. Generally all suhosin.request.*, suhosin.post.* and suhosin.get.* directives can have negative effect on phpMyAdmin usability. You can always find in your error logs which limit did cause dropping of variable, so you can diagnose the problem and adjust matching configuration variable.

The default values for most Suhosin configuration options will work in most scenarios, however you might want to adjust at least following parameters:

To further improve security, we also recommend these modifications:

You can also disable the warning using the $cfg['SuhosinDisableWarning'].

1.39 当我尝试使用 https 连接时,我可以成功登录,但是会重定向回 http 连接,是什么导致了这个行为?

This is caused by the fact that PHP scripts have no knowledge that the site is using https. Depending on used webserver, you should configure it to let PHP know about URL and scheme used to access it.

For example in Apache ensure that you have enabled SSLOptions and StdEnvVars in the configuration.

1.41 当我需要查看数据库权限时,会得到“未知字段”的报错。

MySQL 服务器的权限表没有更新,请运行 mysql_upgrade 命令来进行更新。

1.42 如何阻止爬虫机器人访问 phpMyAdmin?

You can add various rules to .htaccess to filter access based on user agent field. This is quite easy to circumvent, but could prevent at least some robots accessing your installation.

RewriteEngine on

# Allow only GET and POST verbs
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_METHOD} !^(GET|POST)$ [NC,OR]

# Ban Typical Vulnerability Scanners and others
# Kick out Script Kiddies
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^(java|curl|wget).* [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^.*(libwww-perl|curl|wget|python|nikto|wkito|pikto|scan|acunetix).* [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^.*(winhttp|HTTrack|clshttp|archiver|loader|email|harvest|extract|grab|miner).* [NC,OR]

# Ban Search Engines, Crawlers to your administrative panel
# No reasons to access from bots
# Ultimately Better than the useless robots.txt
# Did google respect robots.txt?
# Try google: intitle:phpMyAdmin intext:"Welcome to phpMyAdmin *.*.*" intext:"Log in" -wiki -forum -forums -questions intext:"Cookies must be enabled"
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^.*(AdsBot-Google|ia_archiver|Scooter|Ask.Jeeves|Baiduspider|Exabot|FAST.Enterprise.Crawler|FAST-WebCrawler|www\.neomo\.de|Gigabot|Mediapartners-Google|Google.Desktop|Feedfetcher-Google|Googlebot|heise-IT-Markt-Crawler|heritrix|ibm.com\cs/crawler|ICCrawler|ichiro|MJ12bot|MetagerBot|msnbot-NewsBlogs|msnbot|msnbot-media|NG-Search|lucene.apache.org|NutchCVS|OmniExplorer_Bot|online.link.validator|psbot0|Seekbot|Sensis.Web.Crawler|SEO.search.Crawler|Seoma.\[SEO.Crawler\]|SEOsearch|Snappy|www.urltrends.com|www.tkl.iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp/~crawler|SynooBot|crawleradmin.t-info@telekom.de|TurnitinBot|voyager|W3.SiteSearch.Crawler|W3C-checklink|W3C_Validator|www.WISEnutbot.com|yacybot|Yahoo-MMCrawler|Yahoo\!.DE.Slurp|Yahoo\!.Slurp|YahooSeeker).* [NC]
RewriteRule .* - [F]

1.43 为什么不能显示包含上百个字段的表结构?

您的 PHP 配置 memory_limit 太低了,请提高 php.ini 文件中该项配置的值。

1.44 我如何减少硬盘上 phpMyAdmin 的占用空间?

Some users have requested to be able to reduce the size of the phpMyAdmin installation. This is not recommended and could lead to confusion over missing features, but can be done. A list of files and corresponding functionality which degrade gracefully when removed include:

  • ./locale/ folder, or unused subfolders (interface translations)
  • Any unused themes in ./themes/ except the default theme pmahomme.
  • ./libraries/language_stats.inc.php (translation statistics)
  • ./doc/ (documentation)
  • ./setup/ (setup script)
  • ./examples/ (configuration examples)
  • ./sql/ (SQL scripts to configure advanced functionalities)
  • ./js/src/ (Source files to re-build ./js/dist/)
  • ./js/global.d.ts JS type declaration file
  • Run rm -rv vendor/tecnickcom/tcpdf && composer dump-autoload –no-interaction –optimize –dev (exporting to PDF)
  • Run rm -rv vendor/williamdes/mariadb-mysql-kbs && composer dump-autoload –no-interaction –optimize –dev (external links to MariaDB and MySQL documentations)
  • Run rm -rv vendor/code-lts/u2f-php-server && composer dump-autoload –no-interaction –optimize –dev (U2F second factor authentication)
  • Run rm -rv vendor/pragmarx/* && composer dump-autoload –no-interaction –optimize –dev (2FA second factor authentication)
  • Run rm -rv vendor/bacon/bacon-qr-code && composer dump-autoload –no-interaction –optimize –dev (QRcode generation for 2FA second factor authentication)

1.45 尝试登录时,我收到错误信息“未知的认证方法 caching_sha2_password”

当使用版本号为 8 及以上的 MySQL 登录时,您可能会遇到这样的错误消息:

mysqli_real_connect(): The server requested authentication method unknown to the client [caching_sha2_password]

mysqli_real_connect(): (HY000/2054): The server requested authentication method unknown to the client

This error is because of a version compatibility problem between PHP and MySQL. The MySQL project introduced a new authentication method (our tests show this began with version 8.0.11) however PHP did not include the ability to use that authentication method. PHP reports that this was fixed in PHP version 7.4.

Users experiencing this are encouraged to upgrade their PHP installation, however a workaround exists. Your MySQL user account can be set to use the older authentication with a command such as

ALTER USER 'root'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED WITH mysql_native_password BY 'PASSWORD';

设置

2.1 页面显示 “Warning: Cannot add header information - headers already sent by …”,怎么办?

请检查 config.inc.php 文件,确保在 <?php 之前和 ?> 标签之后没有任何字符(包括空格、制表符以及空行等)。

2.2 phpMyAdmin 无法连接到 MySQL 服务器,这是怎么回事?

这可能是因为您的 PHP 配置有误,或者您使用的登录名或密码错误。请写一个脚本,使用 mysql_connect 来尝试是否能连接到 MySQL 服务器,如果不能,就说明您可能没有将 MySQL 功能支持编译到 PHP 中。

2.3 网页显示 “Warning: MySQL Connection Failed: Can’t connect to local MySQL server through socket ‘/tmp/mysql.sock’ (111) …” 这样的错误,怎么办?

The error message can also be: Error #2002 - The server is not responding (or the local MySQL server’s socket is not correctly configured).

首先,你需要确定 MySQL 使用的 socket。用终端连接到你的 MySQL 服务器并切换到 MySQL 的 bin 目录,在这个目录下你应该能找到一个名为 mysqladmin 的文件。执行 ./mysqladmin variables 命令,你就能得到 MySQL 服务器的信息,其中包括了 socket 信息(如 /tmp/mysql.sock )。你也可以询问你的 ISP 这些连接信息,或者,如果运行在自己的设备上,使用 ‘mysql’ 命令行客户端并输入 ‘status’ 以获得连接类型和 socket 或端口号码。

Then, you need to tell PHP to use this socket. You can do this for all PHP in the php.ini or for phpMyAdmin only in the config.inc.php. For example: $cfg['Servers'][$i]['socket'] Please also make sure that the permissions of this file allow to be readable by your webserver.

在 RedHat 服务器上,MySQL 的 socket 是 /var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock,你应该能在 php.ini 文件中找到这样一行

mysql.default_socket = /tmp/mysql.sock

将其修改为

mysql.default_socket = /var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock

之后重新启动 Apache,即可解决问题。

更多信息请参考 MySQL 文档对应的部分

2.4 我运行 phpMyAdmin 的时候,浏览器什么都没有显示,怎么办?

尝试将 phpMyAdmin 配置文件的 $cfg['OBGzip'] 指令设为 false ,有时可以奏效。另外,请查看您的 PHP 版本号,如果版本号包含了字符串 “b” 或 “alpha”,说明这是一个测试版的 PHP,使用测试版可能会产生一些奇怪的问题,请将 PHP 升级到稳定版。

2.6 我收到报错信息 “Access denied for user: ‘root@localhost’ (Using password: YES)”,尝试访问为我的本地主机转发端口的主机上的MySQL服务器时出错。

When you are using a port on your localhost, which you redirect via port-forwarding to another host, MySQL is not resolving the localhost as expected. Erik Wasser explains: The solution is: if your host is “localhost” MySQL (the command line tool mysql as well) always tries to use the socket connection for speeding up things. And that doesn’t work in this configuration with port forwarding. If you enter “127.0.0.1” as hostname, everything is right and MySQL uses the TCP connection.

2.7 如何创建和使用主题?

参阅 自定义主题

2.8 我遇到 “缺少参数” 的错误提示,怎么办?

请先检查以下几点:

  • In config.inc.php, try to leave the $cfg['PmaAbsoluteUri'] directive empty. See also 4.7 为什么认证窗口显示了很多次?.
  • 可能您安装的 PHP 版本有问题,试试升级 Zend Optimizer。请参考 <https://bugs.php.net/bug.php?id=31134> 。
  • 如果您使用 Hardened PHP 并在 php.ini 中将 varfilter.max_request_variables 显式地设为了小于等于默认值(200)的值,就可能会导致此问题。如果您的表中有很多字段,请增加此设置的值(感谢 Klaus Dorninger 提供的信息)。
  • 如果在 php.iniarg_separator.input 选项被设置为 “;” 就有可能导致此问题。请将其更换为 “&;”。
  • 如果您正在使用 Suhosin ,请增大 request limits 的设置值。
  • 如果 php.ini 中的选项 session.save_path 设定的目录不存在或者目录权限为只读,可能导致此问题(PHP 安装的 bug 可能会导致这个问题)。

2.9 怎样设置才能显示上传进度条?

要使用此功能,请在服务器上安装 uploadprogress 扩展,并确保运行在 PHP 5.4.0 及更新的版本上,另外,还要启用 JSON 扩展。

如果正在使用 PHP 5.4.0 及更新的版本,必须将 php.ini 中的 session.upload_progress.enabled 设置为 1。然而,从 phpMyAdmin 4.0.4 版本开始,基于会话实现的上传进度由于迷惑行为已经暂时禁用了。

2.10 How to generate a string of random bytes

One way to generate a string of random bytes suitable for cryptographic use is using the random_bytes PHP function. Since this function returns a binary string, the returned value should be converted to printable format before being able to copy it.

For example, the $cfg['blowfish_secret'] configuration directive requires a 32-bytes long string. The following command can be used to generate a hexadecimal representation of this string.

php -r 'echo bin2hex(random_bytes(32)) . PHP_EOL;'

The above example will output something similar to:

f16ce59f45714194371b48fe362072dc3b019da7861558cd4ad29e4d6fb13851

And then this hexadecimal value can be used in the configuration file.

$cfg['blowfish_secret'] = sodium_hex2bin('f16ce59f45714194371b48fe362072dc3b019da7861558cd4ad29e4d6fb13851');

The sodium_hex2bin is used here to convert the hexadecimal value back to the binary format.

已知限制

3.1 使用HTTP身份验证时,已注销的用户不能使用同一身份再次登录。

这是 phpMyAdmin 的认证机制引起的问题。要解决此问题,请关闭所有已打开的 Windows 文件夹,然后重新登录 phpMyAdmin。

3.2 在压缩模式下转储大表时,会出现内存限制错误或时间限制错误。

压缩转储在内存中进行,而 PHP 对内存的使用有限制。从 2.5.4 版本开始,可以使用 Gzip/BZip2 :config:option: $cfg[‘CompressOnFly’] 选项(默认启用)来解决问题。此方法不支持 Zip 导出,要进行 Zip 导出,需要使用其他的方法。

3.3 使用InnoDB表,我在重命名表或列时会丢失外键关系。

这是一个 InnoDB 引擎的错误,请参考:<https://bugs.mysql.com/bug.php?id=21704>。

3.4 我无法导入用 MySQL 服务器工具 mysqldump 生成的转储文件。

这是因为旧版本的 mysqldump 生成了错误的注释行,就像下面这样:

-- MySQL dump 8.22
--
-- Host: localhost Database: database
---------------------------------------------------------
-- Server version 3.23.54

错误的注释是那行由短横线组成的水平线,正确的注释应该是两个短横线后面跟一个空格。所以,要解决此问题,请在水平线的前两个短横线后加上一个空格,或直接在水平线的前面加上一个#符号,就像下面这样:-- -------------------------------------------------------#---------------------------------------------------------

3.5 当使用嵌套文件夹时,多层级关系显示错误。

Please note that you should not use the separating string multiple times without any characters between them, or at the beginning/end of your table name. If you have to, think about using another TableSeparator or disabling that feature.

3.6 (withdrawn).

3.7 我拥有一张字段数上百个的表格,当浏览表格时,出现一系列类似于“Warning: unable to parse url”的错误,怎么修复它?

Your table neither have a primary key nor an unique key, so we must use a long expression to identify this row. This causes problems to parse_url function. The workaround is to create a primary key or unique key.

3.8 I cannot use (clickable) HTML-forms in columns where I put a MIME-Transformation onto!

Due to a surrounding form-container (for multi-row delete checkboxes), no nested forms can be put inside the table where phpMyAdmin displays the results. You can, however, use any form inside of a table if keep the parent form-container with the target to tbl_row_delete.php and just put your own input-elements inside. If you use a custom submit input field, the form will submit itself to the displaying page again, where you can validate the $HTTP_POST_VARS in a transformation. For a tutorial on how to effectively use transformations, see our Link section on the official phpMyAdmin-homepage.

3.9 当在 MySQL 服务器上使用 “–sql_mode=ANSI” 时,会收到报错信息。

When MySQL is running in ANSI-compatibility mode, there are some major differences in how SQL is structured (see <https://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.7/en/sql-mode.html>). Most important of all, the quote-character (”) is interpreted as an identifier quote character and not as a string quote character, which makes many internal phpMyAdmin operations into invalid SQL statements. There is no workaround to this behaviour. News to this item will be posted in issue #7383.

3.10 Homonyms and no primary key: When the results of a SELECT display more that one column with the same value (for example SELECT lastname from employees where firstname like 'A%' and two “Smith” values are displayed), if I click Edit I cannot be sure that I am editing the intended row.

Please make sure that your table has a primary key, so that phpMyAdmin can use it for the Edit and Delete links.

3.11 InnoDB 引擎表格的行数不对。

phpMyAdmin uses a quick method to get the row count, and this method only returns an approximate count in the case of InnoDB tables. See $cfg['MaxExactCount'] for a way to modify those results, but this could have a serious impact on performance. However, one can easily replace the approximate row count with exact count by simply clicking on the approximate count. This can also be done for all tables at once by clicking on the rows sum displayed at the bottom.

3.12 (withdrawn).

3.13 当输入 USE 命令后接一个带连字符的数据库名称时,会遇到报错。

The tests I have made with MySQL 5.1.49 shows that the API does not accept this syntax for the USE command.

3.14 我无法浏览不具有某一列 SELECT 权限的表格。

这是 phpMyAdmin 从一开始就已知的限制,未来不太可能会解决。

3.15 (withdrawn).

3.16 (withdrawn).

3.17 (withdrawn).

3.18 当我导入包含多个表的CSV文件时,它们被集中到一个表中。

There is no reliable way to differentiate tables in CSV format. For the time being, you will have to break apart CSV files containing multiple tables.

3.19 当我导入一个文件,并且让 phpMyAdmin 决定数据的合适类型时,它只能使用 int、decimal 和 varchar 类型。

Currently, the import type-detection system can only assign these MySQL types to columns. In future, more will likely be added but for the time being you will have to edit the structure to your liking post-import. Also, you should note the fact that phpMyAdmin will use the size of the largest item in any given column as the column size for the appropriate type. If you know you will be adding larger items to that column then you should manually adjust the column sizes accordingly. This is done for the sake of efficiency.

3.20 在升级之后,部分书签消失了,不能显示它们的内容。

At some point, the character set used to store bookmark content has changed. It’s better to recreate your bookmark from the newer phpMyAdmin version.

3.21 I am unable to log in with a username containing unicode characters such as á.

This can happen if MySQL server is not configured to use utf-8 as default charset. This is a limitation of how PHP and the MySQL server interact; there is no way for PHP to set the charset before authenticating.

ISP 与多用户安装

4.1 我是互联网服务提供商(ISP),我可以在服务中心只安装一遍 phpMyAdmin ,还是需要每个客户都要安装一遍?

Since version 2.0.3, you can setup a central copy of phpMyAdmin for all your users. The development of this feature was kindly sponsored by NetCologne GmbH. This requires a properly setup MySQL user management and phpMyAdmin HTTP or cookie authentication.

4.2 What’s the preferred way of making phpMyAdmin secure against evil access?

This depends on your system. If you’re running a server which cannot be accessed by other people, it’s sufficient to use the directory protection bundled with your webserver (with Apache you can use .htaccess files, for example). If other people have telnet access to your server, you should use phpMyAdmin’s HTTP or cookie authentication features.

建议:

  • 您的 config.inc.php 文件的模式应该是 chmod 660
  • All your phpMyAdmin files should be chown -R phpmy.apache, where phpmy is a user whose password is only known to you, and apache is the group under which Apache runs.
  • 遵从 PHP 和服务器的安全推荐手段。

4.3 I get errors about not being able to include a file in /lang or in /libraries.

Check php.ini, or ask your sysadmin to check it. The include_path must contain “.” somewhere in it, and open_basedir, if used, must contain “.” and “./lang” to allow normal operation of phpMyAdmin.

4.4 使用 HTTP 认证时,phpMyAdmin 总会报错 “拒绝访问”。

导致发生错误的原因:

4.5 可以让用户创建他们自己的数据库吗?

从2.2.5版本开始可用,在用户管理页面,你可以为用户输入数据库名的通配符(如 “joe%”),并赋予你想要的权限。例如,加入 SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, CREATE, DROP, INDEX, ALTER 可以令用户创建或管理他们的数据库。

4.6 我如何使用基于主机的认证?

If you have existing rules from an old .htaccess file, you can take them and add a username between the 'deny'/'allow' and 'from' strings. Using the username wildcard of '%' would be a major benefit here if your installation is suited to using it. Then you can just add those updated lines into the $cfg['Servers'][$i]['AllowDeny']['rules'] array.

If you want a pre-made sample, you can try this fragment. It stops the ‘root’ user from logging in from any networks other than the private network IP blocks.

//block root from logging in except from the private networks
$cfg['Servers'][$i]['AllowDeny']['order'] = 'deny,allow';
$cfg['Servers'][$i]['AllowDeny']['rules'] = [
    'deny root from all',
    'allow root from localhost',
    'allow root from 10.0.0.0/8',
    'allow root from 192.168.0.0/16',
    'allow root from 172.16.0.0/12',
];

4.7 为什么认证窗口显示了很多次?

This happens if you are using a URL to start phpMyAdmin which is different than the one set in your $cfg['PmaAbsoluteUri']. For example, a missing “www”, or entering with an IP address while a domain name is defined in the config file.

4.8 启动 phpMyAdmin 时可以在 URL 中使用哪些参数?

When starting phpMyAdmin, you can use the db and server parameters. This last one can contain either the numeric host index (from $i of the configuration file) or one of the host names present in the configuration file.

For example, to jump directly to a particular database, a URL can be constructed as https://example.com/phpmyadmin/?db=sakila.

在 4.9.0 版更改: Support for using the pma_username and pma_password parameters was removed in phpMyAdmin 4.9.0 (see PMASA-2019-4).

浏览器或客户端操作系统

5.1 当我尝试创建超过 14 个字段的表格时,我收到“内存用尽”警告,且操作失效。

We could reproduce this problem only under Win98/98SE. Testing under WinNT4 or Win2K, we could easily create more than 60 columns. A workaround is to create a smaller number of columns, then come back to your table properties and add the other columns.

5.2 使用 Xitami 2.5b4 时,phpMyAdmin 无法处理表单字段。

This is not a phpMyAdmin problem but a Xitami known bug: you’ll face it with each script/website that use forms. Upgrade or downgrade your Xitami server.

5.3 我通过 Konqueror (phpMyAdmin 2.2.2) 导出表格结构时遇到了问题。

With Konqueror 2.1.1: plain dumps, zip and gzip dumps work ok, except that the proposed file name for the dump is always ‘tbl_dump.php’. The bzip2 dumps don’t seem to work. With Konqueror 2.2.1: plain dumps work; zip dumps are placed into the user’s temporary directory, so they must be moved before closing Konqueror, or else they disappear. gzip dumps give an error message. Testing needs to be done for Konqueror 2.2.2.

5.5 (withdrawn).

5.6 (withdrawn).

5.7 我刷新了浏览器,回到了欢迎页面。

Some browsers support right-clicking into the frame you want to refresh, just do this in the right frame.

5.8 With Mozilla 0.9.7 I have problems sending a query modified in the query box.

Looks like a Mozilla bug: 0.9.6 was OK. We will keep an eye on future Mozilla versions.

5.9 With Mozilla 0.9.? to 1.0 and Netscape 7.0-PR1 I can’t type a whitespace in the SQL-Query edit area: the page scrolls down.

This is a Mozilla bug (see bug #26882 at BugZilla).

5.10 (withdrawn).

5.11 Extended-ASCII characters like German umlauts are displayed wrong.

Please ensure that you have set your browser’s character set to the one of the language file you have selected on phpMyAdmin’s start page. Alternatively, you can try the auto detection mode that is supported by the recent versions of the most browsers.

5.12 Mac OS X Safari 浏览器将特殊字符替换为“?”。

This issue has been reported by a macOS user, who adds that Chimera, Netscape and Mozilla do not have this problem.

5.13 (withdrawn)

5.14 (withdrawn)

5.15 (withdrawn)

5.16 当使用 Internet Explorer 时,我收到”Access is denied” JavaScript 报错,或者我不能使 phpMyAdmin 在 Windows 下工作。

Please check the following points:

  • Maybe you have defined your $cfg['PmaAbsoluteUri'] setting in config.inc.php to an IP address and you are starting phpMyAdmin with a URL containing a domain name, or the reverse situation.
  • Security settings in IE and/or Microsoft Security Center are too high, thus blocking scripts execution.
  • The Windows Firewall is blocking Apache and MySQL. You must allow HTTP ports (80 or 443) and MySQL port (usually 3306) in the “in” and “out” directions.

5.17 无法使用 Firefox 删除数据或数据库。

Many users have confirmed that the Tabbrowser Extensions plugin they installed in their Firefox is causing the problem.

5.18 (withdrawn)

5.19 我的浏览器中出现 JavaScript 错误。

Issues have been reported with some combinations of browser extensions. To troubleshoot, disable all extensions then clear your browser cache to see if the problem goes away.

5.20 我收到“违反内容安全策略”的报错信息。

If you see errors like:

Refused to apply inline style because it violates the following Content Security Policy directive

This is usually caused by some software, which wrongly rewrites Content Security Policy headers. Usually this is caused by antivirus proxy or browser addons which are causing such errors.

If you see these errors, try disabling the HTTP proxy in antivirus or disable the Content Security Policy rewriting in it. If that doesn’t help, try disabling browser extensions.

Alternatively it can be also server configuration issue (if the webserver is configured to emit Content Security Policy headers, they can override the ones from phpMyAdmin).

Programs known to cause these kind of errors:

  • Kaspersky Internet Security

5.21 I get errors about potentially unsafe operation when browsing table or executing SQL query.

If you see errors like:

A potentially unsafe operation has been detected in your request to this site.

This is usually caused by web application firewall doing requests filtering. It tries to prevent SQL injection, however phpMyAdmin is tool designed to execute SQL queries, thus it makes it unusable.

Please allow phpMyAdmin scripts from the web application firewall settings or disable it completely for phpMyAdmin path.

Programs known to cause these kind of errors:

  • Wordfence Web Application Firewall

使用 phpMyAdmin

6.1 我不能在表中插入新行/我不能创建表-MySQL会出现SQL错误。

仔细检查:term:`SQL`错误。问题通常是由指定错误的列类型引起的。常见错误包括:

  • 使用不带大小参数的 VARCHAR
  • 使用携带大小参数的 TEXTBLOB

同时,请参考 MySQL 手册中语法一章确定你的语法都正确。

6.2 建表时,我给两个字段设置了索引,但 phpMyAdmin 却创建了一个包含这两个字段的索引。

这是一种创建多字段索引的方法。如果你需要两个索引,在建表时先设置一个,保存,然后显示数据表属性并点击索引链接来创建另一个索引。

6.3 怎样向我的表格中插入一个空 (null) 值?

自 2.2.3 版本起,每个字段都有一个复选框来设置字段是否为空。 2.2.3 版本之前,你只能输入 “null”,不包括引号来作为字段的值。自 2.5.5 版本起,你可以使用复选框来获得一个真正的空 (NULL) 值,如果你输入 “NULL” 将表示文字 NULL,而不是空 (NULL) 值 (对 PHP4 同样有效)。

6.4 怎样备份我的数据库或数据表?

Click on a database or table name in the navigation panel, the properties will be displayed. Then on the menu, click “Export”, you can dump the structure, the data, or both. This will generate standard SQL statements that can be used to recreate your database/table. You will need to choose “Save as file”, so that phpMyAdmin can transmit the resulting dump to your station. Depending on your PHP configuration, you will see options to compress the dump. See also the $cfg['ExecTimeLimit'] configuration variable. For additional help on this subject, look for the word “dump” in this document.

6.5 怎样通过转储恢复 (上传) 我的数据库或表?怎样运行一个 “.sql” 文件?

在导航面板中点击数据库名,将会显示它们的属性。在右边框架中的标签列表中选择 “导入”(如果你的 phpMyAdmin 版本低于 2.7.0,选择 SQL)。在 “文本文件的位置” 中输入你的转储文件名路径,或使用浏览按钮。然后点击执行。在 2.7.0 版本,导入引擎经过了重写,在可能的情况下会提示你更新以应用这些新特性。如果需要了解这些新特性,请在文档中查询“上传”一词。

Note: For errors while importing of dumps exported from older MySQL versions to newer MySQL versions, please check 6.41 从旧版 MySQL(5.7.6 版本之前)向新版 MySQL(5.7.7版本及更新)导入转储时,总会遇到导入错误,但是明明在向旧版本导入时没有任何问题啊?.

6.6 怎样在依例查询 (Query-by-example) 中使用关系表?

下面用数据库 “mydb” 中的数据表 persons、towns 和 countries 来举例。如果你没有 pma__relation 表,请先根据设置一节中的说明创建。然后创建示例表格:

CREATE TABLE REL_countries (
country_code char(1) NOT NULL default '',
description varchar(10) NOT NULL default '',
PRIMARY KEY (country_code)
) ENGINE=MyISAM;

INSERT INTO REL_countries VALUES ('C', 'Canada');

CREATE TABLE REL_persons (
id tinyint(4) NOT NULL auto_increment,
person_name varchar(32) NOT NULL default '',
town_code varchar(5) default '0',
country_code char(1) NOT NULL default '',
PRIMARY KEY (id)
) ENGINE=MyISAM;

INSERT INTO REL_persons VALUES (11, 'Marc', 'S', 'C');
INSERT INTO REL_persons VALUES (15, 'Paul', 'S', 'C');

CREATE TABLE REL_towns (
town_code varchar(5) NOT NULL default '0',
description varchar(30) NOT NULL default '',
PRIMARY KEY (town_code)
) ENGINE=MyISAM;

INSERT INTO REL_towns VALUES ('S', 'Sherbrooke');
INSERT INTO REL_towns VALUES ('M', 'Montréal');

设置对应连接并显示信息:

  • 在表 “REL_persons” 上点击结构、关系查看
  • for “town_code”, choose from dropdowns, “mydb”, “REL_towns”, “town_code” for foreign database, table and column respectively
  • for “country_code”, choose from dropdowns, “mydb”, “REL_countries”, “country_code” for foreign database, table and column respectively
  • 在表“REL_towns”上点击结构,然后点击关系查看
  • in “Choose column to display”, choose “description”
  • 在表 “REL_countries” 中重复以上两步

测试步骤如下:

  • 在导航面板中点击你的数据库名
  • 选择 “查询”
  • 使用表: persons、towns、countries
  • 点击 ”更新查询”
  • 在字段行中,选择 persons.person_name 并选中 “显示” 复选框
  • 为 towns.description 和 countries.descriptions 在另两列中重复上一步
  • 点击“更新查询”你就能在查询框中看到已生成的 join 语句
  • 点击 “提交查询”

6.7 怎样使用 “显示字段” 功能?

Starting from the previous example, create the pma__table_info as explained in the configuration section, then browse your persons table, and move the mouse over a town code or country code. See also 6.21 怎样才能在编辑/插入模式中看见某个字段基于外键表的可能的值的列表? for an additional feature that “display column” enables: drop-down list of possible values.

6.8 怎样给我的数据库生成一份 PDF 大纲?

首先必须填入配置变量“relation”、“table_coords” 和 “pdf_pages”。

  • 在导航面板中选择数据库。
  • 在顶部导航条上点击 “Designer” 。
  • 以需要的方式移动表格。
  • 在左侧菜单中选择 “Export schema ”。
  • 导出对话框会打开。
  • 选择导出类型为 PDF,您可以调整其他设置。
  • 一旦提交表单,文件就会开始下载。

参见

关系

6.9 phpMyAdmin 改变了字段的类型!

错误的,是 MySQL 进行了 隐式的字段类型改变

6.10 当创建权限时,如果数据库名称内带有下划线会发生什么?

If you do not put a backslash before the underscore, this is a wildcard grant, and the underscore means “any character”. So, if the database name is “john_db”, the user would get rights to john1db, john2db … If you put a backslash before the underscore, it means that the database name will have a real underscore.

6.11 数据统计页面中的符号 ø 是什么?

这是“平均值”的意思。

6.12 我想了解一些导出选项。

结构:

  • “添加 DROP TABLE” 将会告诉 MySQL,如果在导入时已存在这张表则先 删除它 <https://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.7/en/drop-table.html> _。它不会在导出之后删除你的表,而仅作用于导入的目标。
  • “If Not Exists” 将仅创建不存在的数据表。 否则,当有一个同名但结构不同的数据表存在时就会出错。
  • “添加 AUTO_INCREMENT 值” 保证 AUTO_INCREMENT 值 (如果有) 将包含在备份中。
  • “给表名和字段名加上反引号” 保护名称中含有特殊字符或保留字的字段和表。
  • “Add into comments” includes column comments, relations, and media types set in the pmadb in the dump as SQL comments (/* xxx */).

数据:

  • “Complete inserts” adds the column names on every INSERT command, for better documentation (but resulting file is bigger).
  • “Extended inserts” provides a shorter dump file by using only once the INSERT verb and the table name.
  • “Delayed inserts” are best explained in the MySQL manual - INSERT DELAYED Syntax.
  • “Ignore inserts” treats errors as a warning instead. Again, more info is provided in the MySQL manual - INSERT Syntax, but basically with this selected, invalid values are adjusted and inserted rather than causing the entire statement to fail.

6.13 我想创建一个名字里包含点的数据库。

这是个馊主意,因为在 MySQL 的语法中“database.table”是一个常见的引用指定数据库中表的用法。更糟糕的是,MySQL 通常会允许你创建这样一个数据库,但是你无法使用它,甚至无法删除它。

6.14 (withdrawn).

6.15 我想添加一个 BLOB 字段并索引它,但是 MySQL 说 “BLOB 列 ‘…’ 的主键定义不包含长度”。

The right way to do this, is to create the column without any indexes, then display the table structure and use the “Create an index” dialog. On this page, you will be able to choose your BLOB column, and set a size to the index, which is the condition to create an index on a BLOB column.

6.16 How can I simply move in page with plenty editing fields?

You can use Ctrl+arrows (Option+Arrows in Safari) for moving on most pages with many editing fields (table structure changes, row editing, etc.).

6.17 Transformations: I can’t enter my own mimetype! What is this feature then useful for?

Defining mimetypes is of no use if you can’t put transformations on them. Otherwise you could just put a comment on the column. Because entering your own mimetype will cause serious syntax checking issues and validation, this introduces a high-risk false- user-input situation. Instead you have to initialize mimetypes using functions or empty mimetype definitions.

Plus, you have a whole overview of available mimetypes. Who knows all those mimetypes by heart so they can enter it at will?

6.18 书签:怎么保存书签?为什么我在查询框下找不到书签?变量有什么用?

You need to have configured the phpMyAdmin配置存储 for using bookmarks feature. Once you have done that, you can use bookmarks in the SQL tab.

参见

书签

6.19 怎样创建一份包含导出表的简单的 LATEX 文档?

建立包含表的 TEX 文档很简单,最简单的例子如下所示(假设你将要把表导出到文件 table.tex 中):

\documentclass{article} % or any class you want
\usepackage{longtable}  % for displaying table
\begin{document}        % start of document
\include{table}         % including exported table
\end{document}          % end of document

6.20 我看到好多不属于我的数据库,而且我也无法访问它们。

这是因为你至少有下列全局权限之一:CREATE TEMPORARY TABLES 、SHOW DATABASES 和 LOCK TABLES,这些权限将允许用户看见所有的数据库名,如果你的用户不需要这些权限,你可以移除这些权限,这样他们所能看到的数据库列表就会减少。

6.21 怎样才能在编辑/插入模式中看见某个字段基于外键表的可能的值的列表?

你需要正确设置两张表之间的关系,同时还要在外键表设置 “显示字段” 。参见 6.6 怎样在依例查询 (Query-by-example) 中使用关系表? 中的例子。这时,如果外键表中有不超过 100 个值,就会出现一个下拉框。 你将会看到两个列表,第一个列表包含键和显示字段,第二个列表包含显示字段和键。这么做的目的是为了可以通过按下键或显示字段的首字母来定位。对于100个或更多值,将显示一个不同的窗口,以浏览外键值并选择一个。要更改默认限制100,请参阅 $cfg['ForeignKeyMaxLimit']

6.22 书签:我能在进入一张表的浏览模式时自动执行一个书签吗?

可以。如果书签的名称和表名一致,并且不是公开的,它就会被自动执行。

参见

书签

6.23 导出:phpMyAdmin 如何导出为 Microsoft Excel 文件?

You can use CSV for Microsoft Excel, which works out of the box.

在 3.4.5 版更改: Since phpMyAdmin 3.4.5 support for direct export to Microsoft Excel version 97 and newer was dropped.

6.24 现在 phpMyAdmin 支持了 MySQL 4.1.x 的字段注释,我原来在 phpMyAdmin 高级功能中保存在 pmadb 的字段注释会怎样?

它们将在你进入该表的结构页面时自动并入。

6.25 (withdrawn).

6.26 我怎么选择一些行?

先点击要选择的第一行,按住 Shift 键不放并点击最后一行。这在任何有行的地方都有效,例如浏览模式和结构页面。

6.27 我可以使用哪些格式字符串?

在所有 phpMyAdmin 接受格式字符串的地方,你都可以使用扩展 @VARIABLE@strftime 格式字符串。扩展变量基于当前环境(例如,在你没有选中任何数据表时,你就无法获取表名),可以使用下列变量:

@HTTP_HOST@
运行 phpMyAdmin 的 HTTP 主机
@SERVER@
MySQL 服务器名
@VERBOSE@
$cfg['Servers'][$i]['verbose'] 中定义的详细的 MySQL 服务器名
@VSERVER@
如果设置了详细的 MySQL 服务器名则使用,否则使用常规的服务器名
@DATABASE@
当前打开的数据库
@TABLE@
当前打开的数据表
@COLUMNS@
当前打开表的字段
@PHPMYADMIN@
带版本号的 phpMyAdmin 字样

6.28 (withdrawn).

6.29 为什么我的查询结果不能显示为图表?

不是所有的表都能显示为图表。只有包含一个、两个或者三个字段的表才能通过图表表现出来。并且它还必须具有能令图表脚本理解的特定格式。当前所支持的格式可以在 图表 中找到。

6.30 导入:如何导入 ESRI Shapefiles?

An ESRI Shapefile is actually a set of several files, where .shp file contains geometry data and .dbf file contains data related to those geometry data. To read data from .dbf file you need to have PHP compiled with the dBase extension (–enable-dbase). Otherwise only geometry data will be imported.

为了上传这些文件,您可以使用以下任意一种方法:

Configure upload directory with $cfg['UploadDir'], upload both .shp and .dbf files with the same filename and chose the .shp file from the import page.

Create a zip archive with .shp and .dbf files and import it. For this to work, you need to set $cfg['TempDir'] to a place where the web server user can write (for example './tmp').

要在 UNIX 类系统下创建一个临时目录,可以通过:

cd phpMyAdmin
mkdir tmp
chmod o+rwx tmp

6.31 如何在设计器中创建关系?

To select relation, click: The display column is shown in pink. To set/unset a column as the display column, click the “Choose column to display” icon, then click on the appropriate column name.

6.32 如何使用 zoom 查找功能?

The Zoom search feature is an alternative to table search feature. It allows you to explore a table by representing its data in a scatter plot. You can locate this feature by selecting a table and clicking the Search tab. One of the sub-tabs in the Table Search page is Zoom Search.

Consider the table REL_persons in 6.6 怎样在依例查询 (Query-by-example) 中使用关系表? for an example. To use zoom search, two columns need to be selected, for example, id and town_code. The id values will be represented on one axis and town_code values on the other axis. Each row will be represented as a point in a scatter plot based on its id and town_code. You can include two additional search criteria apart from the two fields to display.

You can choose which field should be displayed as label for each point. If a display column has been set for the table (see 6.7 怎样使用 “显示字段” 功能?), it is taken as the label unless you specify otherwise. You can also select the maximum number of rows you want to be displayed in the plot by specifing it in the ‘Max rows to plot’ field. Once you have decided over your criteria, click ‘Go’ to display the plot.

After the plot is generated, you can use the mouse wheel to zoom in and out of the plot. In addition, panning feature is enabled to navigate through the plot. You can zoom-in to a certain level of detail and use panning to locate your area of interest. Clicking on a point opens a dialogue box, displaying field values of the data row represented by the point. You can edit the values if required and click on submit to issue an update query. Basic instructions on how to use can be viewed by clicking the ‘How to use?’ link located just above the plot.

6.33 浏览表格时,如何复制字段名?

Selecting the name of the column within the browse table header cell for copying is difficult, as the columns support reordering by dragging the header cells as well as sorting by clicking on the linked column name. To copy a column name, double-click on the empty area next to the column name, when the tooltip tells you to do so. This will show you an input box with the column name. You may right-click the column name within this input box to copy it to your clipboard.

6.34 如何使用表格收藏功能?

Favorite Tables feature is very much similar to Recent Tables feature. It allows you to add a shortcut for the frequently used tables of any database in the navigation panel . You can easily navigate to any table in the list by simply choosing it from the list. These tables are stored in your browser’s local storage if you have not configured your phpMyAdmin Configuration Storage. Otherwise these entries are stored in phpMyAdmin Configuration Storage.

IMPORTANT: In absence of phpMyAdmin Configuration Storage, your Favorite tables may be different in different browsers based on your different selections in them.

To add a table to Favorite list simply click on the Gray star in front of a table name in the list of tables of a Database and wait until it turns to Yellow. To remove a table from list, simply click on the Yellow star and wait until it turns Gray again.

Using $cfg['NumFavoriteTables'] in your config.inc.php file, you can define the maximum number of favorite tables shown in the navigation panel. Its default value is 10.

6.35 如何使用范围查找功能?

With the help of range search feature, one can specify a range of values for particular column(s) while performing search operation on a table from the Search tab.

To use this feature simply click on the BETWEEN or NOT BETWEEN operators from the operator select list in front of the column name. On choosing one of the above options, a dialog box will show up asking for the Minimum and Maximum value for that column. Only the specified range of values will be included in case of BETWEEN and excluded in case of NOT BETWEEN from the final results.

Note: The Range search feature will work only Numeric and Date data type columns.

6.36 什么是 Central 字段,我如何使用这个功能?

As the name suggests, the Central columns feature enables to maintain a central list of columns per database to avoid similar name for the same data element and bring consistency of data type for the same data element. You can use the central list of columns to add an element to any table structure in that database which will save from writing similar column name and column definition.

To add a column to central list, go to table structure page, check the columns you want to include and then simply click on “Add to central columns”. If you want to add all unique columns from more than one table from a database then go to database structure page, check the tables you want to include and then select “Add columns to central list”.

To remove a column from central list, go to Table structure page, check the columns you want to remove and then simply click on “Remove from central columns”. If you want to remove all columns from more than one tables from a database then go to database structure page, check the tables you want to include and then select “Remove columns from central list”.

To view and manage the central list, select the database you want to manage central columns for then from the top menu click on “Central columns”. You will be taken to a page where you will have options to edit, delete or add new columns to central list.

6.37 如何使用表结构优化功能?

Improve table structure feature helps to bring the table structure upto Third Normal Form. A wizard is presented to user which asks questions about the elements during the various steps for normalization and a new structure is proposed accordingly to bring the table into the First/Second/Third Normal form. On startup of the wizard, user gets to select upto what normal form they want to normalize the table structure.

Here is an example table which you can use to test all of the three First, Second and Third Normal Form.

CREATE TABLE `VetOffice` (
 `petName` varchar(64) NOT NULL,
 `petBreed` varchar(64) NOT NULL,
 `petType` varchar(64) NOT NULL,
 `petDOB` date NOT NULL,
 `ownerLastName` varchar(64) NOT NULL,
 `ownerFirstName` varchar(64) NOT NULL,
 `ownerPhone1` int(12) NOT NULL,
 `ownerPhone2` int(12) NOT NULL,
 `ownerEmail` varchar(64) NOT NULL,
);

The above table is not in First normal Form as no primary key exists. Primary key is supposed to be (petName,`ownerLastName`,`ownerFirstName`) . If the primary key is chosen as suggested the resultant table won’t be in Second as well as Third Normal form as the following dependencies exists.

(OwnerLastName, OwnerFirstName) -> OwnerEmail
(OwnerLastName, OwnerFirstName) -> OwnerPhone
PetBreed -> PetType

Which says, OwnerEmail depends on OwnerLastName and OwnerFirstName. OwnerPhone depends on OwnerLastName and OwnerFirstName. PetType depends on PetBreed.

6.38 我如何重新分配自动增长的值?

Some users prefer their AUTO_INCREMENT values to be consecutive; this is not always the case after row deletion.

Here are the steps to accomplish this. These are manual steps because they involve a manual verification at one point.

  • Ensure that you have exclusive access to the table to rearrange
  • On your primary key column (i.e. id), remove the AUTO_INCREMENT setting
  • Delete your primary key in Structure > indexes
  • Create a new column future_id as primary key, AUTO_INCREMENT
  • Browse your table and verify that the new increments correspond to what you’re expecting
  • 删除掉旧的字段
  • Rename the future_id column to id
  • Move the new id column via Structure > Move columns

6.39 What is the “Adjust privileges” option when renaming, copying, or moving a database, table, column, or procedure?

When renaming/copying/moving a database/table/column/procedure, MySQL does not adjust the original privileges relating to these objects on its own. By selecting this option, phpMyAdmin will adjust the privilege table so that users have the same privileges on the new items.

For example: A user ‘bob’@’localhost’ has a ‘SELECT’ privilege on a column named ‘id’. Now, if this column is renamed to ‘id_new’, MySQL, on its own, would not adjust the column privileges to the new column name. phpMyAdmin can make this adjustment for you automatically.

注意:

  • While adjusting privileges for a database, the privileges of all database-related elements (tables, columns and procedures) are also adjusted to the database’s new name.
  • Similarly, while adjusting privileges for a table, the privileges of all the columns inside the new table are also adjusted.
  • While adjusting privileges, the user performing the operation must have the following privileges:
    • SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE privileges on following tables: mysql.`db`, mysql.`columns_priv`, mysql.`tables_priv`, mysql.`procs_priv`
    • FLUSH privilege (GLOBAL)

Thus, if you want to replicate the database/table/column/procedure as it is while renaming/copying/moving these objects, make sure you have checked this option.

6.40 I see “Bind parameters” checkbox in the “SQL” page. How do I write parameterized SQL queries?

From version 4.5, phpMyAdmin allows users to execute parameterized queries in the “SQL” page. Parameters should be prefixed with a colon(:) and when the “Bind parameters” checkbox is checked these parameters will be identified and input fields for these parameters will be presented. Values entered in these field will be substituted in the query before being executed.

6.41 从旧版 MySQL(5.7.6 版本之前)向新版 MySQL(5.7.7版本及更新)导入转储时,总会遇到导入错误,但是明明在向旧版本导入时没有任何问题啊?

If you get errors like #1031 - Table storage engine for ‘table_name’ doesn’t have this option while importing the dumps exported from pre-5.7.7 MySQL servers into new MySQL server versions 5.7.7+, it might be because ROW_FORMAT=FIXED is not supported with InnoDB tables. Moreover, the value of innodb_strict_mode would define if this would be reported as a warning or as an error.

Since MySQL version 5.7.9, the default value for innodb_strict_mode is ON and thus would generate an error when such a CREATE TABLE or ALTER TABLE statement is encountered.

There are two ways of preventing such errors while importing:

  • Change the value of innodb_strict_mode to OFF before starting the import and turn it ON after the import is successfully completed.
  • This can be achieved in two ways:
    • Go to ‘Variables’ page and edit the value of innodb_strict_mode
    • Run the query : SET GLOBAL `innodb_strict_mode = ‘[value]’`

After the import is done, it is suggested that the value of innodb_strict_mode should be reset to the original value.

phpMyAdmin 项目

7.1 我发现了一处缺陷。怎样通知开发者?

Our issues tracker is located at <https://github.com/phpmyadmin/phpmyadmin/issues>. For security issues, please refer to the instructions at <https://www.phpmyadmin.net/security> to email the developers directly.

7.2 我想将本软件翻译为新的语言,或更新现有的语言,我该怎么做?

我们欢迎翻译本项目,且只需要你具有一定的语言水平。最简单的方法是利用我们的 在线翻译服务 。你也可以在我们官方网站的 翻译部分 找到所有的可能。

7.3 怎样帮助开发 phpMyAdmin ?

我们欢迎对 phpMyAdmin 项目开发的任何贡献。您可以在 官方网站的“贡献”部分 检查可供贡献的地方。

安全

8.1 哪里可以获取 phpMyAdmin 的安全警示信息?

请参考 <https://www.phpmyadmin.net/security/>。

8.2 怎样防止 phpMyAdmin 遭受暴力破解?

如果你使用 Apache 服务器,phpMyAdmin 会导出认证信息到 Apache 环境并可被 Apache 日志使用。目前有两个变量可用:

userID
当前活动用户的用户名(不需要在登录状态)。
userStatus
当前活动用户的状态,有 ok (用户已登录)、mysql-denied (MySQL 拒绝用户登录)、allow-denied (用户被允许/禁止规则禁止)、root-denied (root 用户登录在配置文件中被禁止)、empty-denied (禁止空密码登录) 这几种状态。

可以像这样设置 Apache 的 LogFormat 指令:

LogFormat "%h %l %u %t \"%r\" %>s %b \"%{Referer}i\" \"%{User-Agent}i\" %{userID}n %{userStatus}n"   pma_combined

然后你可以使用任何日志分析工具来检测潜在的攻击。

8.3 为什么直接加载特定文件时会暴露路径?

这是服务器配置问题,永远不要在生产环境中启用 display_errors

8.4 phpMyAdmin导出的 CSV 文件可能会遭受公式注入攻击。

It is possible to generate a CSV file that, when imported to a spreadsheet program such as Microsoft Excel, could potentially allow the execution of arbitrary commands.

The CSV files generated by phpMyAdmin could potentially contain text that would be interpreted by a spreadsheet program as a formula, but we do not believe escaping those fields is the proper behavior. There is no means to properly escape and differentiate between a desired text output and a formula that should be escaped, and CSV is a text format where function definitions should not be interpreted anyway. We have discussed this at length and feel it is the responsibility of the spreadsheet program to properly parse and sanitize such data on input instead.

Google also has a similar view.

同步

9.1 (withdrawn).

9.2 (withdrawn).